We define a new antitumorous function of the histone lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) in pancreatic cancer. KMT2D is transcriptionally repressed in human pancreatic tumours through DNA methylation. Clinically, lower levels of this methyltransferase associate with poor prognosis and significant weight alterations. RNAi-based genetic inactivation of KMT2D promotes tumour growth and results in loss of H3K4me3 mark. In addition, KMT2D inhibition increases aerobic glycolysis and alters the lipidomic profiles of pancreatic cancer cells. Further analysis of this phenomenon identified the glucose transporter SLC2A3 as a mediator of KMT2D-induced changes in cellular, metabolic and proliferative rates.
Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are prototypical complex diseases characterized by chronic and heterogeneous manifestations, induced by interacting environmental, genomic, microbial and immunological factors. These interactions result in an overwhelming complexity that cannot be tackled by studying the totality of each pathological component (an ‘-ome’) in isolation without consideration of the interaction among all relevant -omes that yield an overall ‘network effect’. The outcome of this effect is the ‘IBD interactome’, defined as a disease network in which dysregulation of individual -omes causes intestinal inflammation mediated by dysfunctional molecular modules. To define the IBD interactome, new concepts and tools are needed to implement a systems approach; an unbiased data-driven integration strategy that reveals key players of the system, pinpoints the central drivers of inflammation and enables development of targeted therapies. Powerful bioinformatics tools able to query and integrate multiple -omes are available, enabling the integration of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and microbiome information to build a comprehensive molecular map of IBD. This approach will enable identification of IBD molecular subtypes, correlations with clinical phenotypes and elucidation of the central hubs of the IBD interactome that will aid discovery of compounds that can specifically target the hubs that control the disease.
Many diseases that affect modern humans fall in the category of complex diseases, thus called because they result from a combination of multiple aetiological and pathogenic factors. Regardless of the organ or system affected, complex diseases present major challenges in diagnosis, classification, and management. Current forms of therapy are usually applied in an indiscriminate fashion based on clinical information, but even the most advanced drugs only benefit a limited number of patients and to a variable and unpredictable degree. This ‘one measure does not fit all’ situation has spurred the notion that therapy for complex disease should be tailored to individual patients or groups of patients, giving rise to the notion of ‘precision medicine’ [PM]. Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is a prototypical complex disease where the need for PM has become increasingly clear. This prompted the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation to focus the 7 th Scientific Workshop on this emerging theme. The articles in this special issue of the Journal address the various complementary aspects of PM in IBD, including what is PM; why it is needed and how it can be used; how PM can contribute to prediction and prevention of IBD; how IBD PM can aid in prognosis and improve response to therapy; and the challenges and future directions of PM in IBD. This first article of this series is structured on three simple concepts [what, why, and how] and addresses the definition of PM, discusses the rationale for the need of PM in IBD, and outlines the methodology required to implement PM in IBD in a correct and clinically meaningful way.
We have identified a signature of 12 circulating microRNAs that differentiate patients with UC from control subjects. Moreover, 6 of these microRNAs significantly correlated with UC disease activity. Importantly, a set of 4 microRNAs (hsa-miR-4454, hsa-miR-223-3p, hsa-miR-23a-3p, and hsa-miR-320e), which correlated with UC disease activity were found to have higher sensitivity and specificity values than C-reactive protein. Circulating microRNAs provide a novel diagnostic and prognostic marker for patients with UC. The use of an FDA-approved platform could accelerate the application of microRNA screening in a gastrointenstinal clinical setting. When used in combination with current diagnostic and disease activity assessment modalities, microRNAs could improve both IBD screening and care management.
miR-124 appears to regulate the expression of STAT3. Reduced levels of miR-124 in colon tissues of children with active UC appear to increase expression and activity of STAT3, which could promote inflammation and the pathogenesis of UC in children. Thus, the activation of miR-124 could have a therapeutic potential in IBD patients.
The Evolving Landscape of Antibody-Drug Conjugates for Urothelial Carcinoma. Clin Genitourin Cancer, S1558-7673(20)30267-6, 2020.
Summary: Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) carries a poor prognosis and a 5-year overall survival of less than 5%, despite standard of care therapy using cisplatin-based chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Thus, novel agents that improve survival and have an acceptable toxicity profile are urgently needed. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent a promising new treatment option that utilizes the targeting ability of an antibody to deliver cytotoxic drugs directly to tumors. Many ADCs are currently being investigated for treatment of UC, with enfortumab vedotin being recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of metastatic UC with progressive disease after chemotherapy and/or immune checkpoint inhibitors. Overall, ADCs hold promise as a long-awaited treatment option for UC.
A Phase I, Open-label, Dose-escalation, and Cohort Expansion Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immune Response to Autologous Dendritic Cells Transduced With AdGMCA9 (DC-AdGMCAIX) in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma. J Immunother, 43(9):273-282, 2020.
Summary: This study shows that autologous immature DC-AdGMCAIX can be safely given to metastatic RCC patients without any serious adverse events with CAIX-specific immune response elicited by the treatment. These preliminary data support further study of Ad-GMCAIX, particularly with combination therapies that may enhance clinical activity.
To treat or not to treat: Patient exclusion in immune oncology clinical trials due to preexisting autoimmune disease. Cancer, 125(20):3506-3513, 2019.
Summary: Newly developed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) demonstrate impressive clinical activity. However, they can also cause life-threatening side effects. The efficacy and toxicity associated with ICIs both derive from unregulated, enhanced immune activation. Health care providers have been hesitant to prescribe these medications to patients who have preexisting autoimmune disease (AD) because of concerns that this may exacerbate their underlying immune condition. These patients have also been excluded from ongoing ICI clinical trials. However, new data suggest that the potential benefits of ICI treatment may outweigh the potential risks for this patient group as long as physicians also provide sufficient monitoring for AD exacerbations or other side effects. Therefore, it may be appropriate to include patients with advanced malignancies and preexisting AD in ICI clinical trials when no other effective cancer treatment options exist. Overall, physicians should avoid excluding patients from ICI therapy unnecessarily when the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks.
Ramucirumab plus docetaxel versus placebo plus docetaxel in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma after platinum-based therapy (RANGE): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 390(10109):2266-2277, 2017.
Summary: Ramucirumab plus docetaxel is the first regimen in a phase 3 study to show superior progression-free survival over chemotherapy in patients with platinum-refractory advanced urothelial carcinoma. These data validate inhibition of VEGFR-2 signalling as a potential new therapeutic treatment option for patients with urothelial carcinoma.
Durvalumab: an investigational anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma. Drug Des Devel Ther 12:209-215, 2018.
Summary: Our expanding knowledge of immunotherapy for solid tumors has led to an explosion of clinical trials aimed at urothelial carcinoma. The primary strategy is centered on unleashing the immune system by releasing the inhibitory signals propagated by programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1). Many antibody constructs have been developed to block these interactions and are used in clinical trials. The Food and Drug Administration has already approved a number of checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) monoclonal antibodies including ipilimumab; anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies including nivolumab and pembrolizumab; anti-PD-L1 antibodies including atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab. One of the latest inhibitors is durvalumab, which is a high-affinity human immunoglobulin G1 kappa monoclonal antibody and blocks the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1 and CD80. Currently, there are a number of ongoing trials in advanced urothelial carcinoma both using durvalumab monotherapy and in combination with other targeted therapies. In addition, durvalumab is being investigated in the non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, which is centered around intravenous formulations. These exciting developments have added a significant number of therapies in a previously limited treatment landscape.
Carbonic anhydrase-IX score is a novel biomarker that predicts recurrence and survival for high-risk, nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma: Data from the phase III ARISER clinical trial. Urol Oncol 33(5):204.e25-33, 2015.
Summary: The largest, multicenter, prospective analysis of patients with high-risk nonmetastatic ccRCC demonstrates the utility of CAIX score as a statistically significant prognostic biomarker for survival. It recommends that CAIX score be quantified for all patients with high-risk disease after nephrectomy.
Clinical, molecular, and genetic correlates of lymphatic spread in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol. 61(5):888-95, 2012.
Summary: predictive model consisting of smoking history (p=0.040), T stage (p<0.0001), Fuhrman grade (p<0.0001), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p<0.0001), and microvascular invasion (p<0.0001) was independently associated with lymphatic spread. After adjustment with these clinical variables, low carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) (p=0.043) and high epithelial vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (p=0.033) protein expression were associated with a higher risk of lymphatic spread, and loss of chromosome 3p (p<0.0001) with a lower risk.
Smoking negatively impacts renal cell carcinoma overall and cancer-specific survival. Cancer. 1;118(7):1795-802, 2012.
Summary: In patients with RCC, a history of smoking was associated with worse pathologic features and survival outcomes and with an increased risk of having mutated p53. Further investigation of the genetic and molecular mechanisms associated with decreased CSS in patients with RCC who have a history of smoking is indicated.
Carbonic anhydrase IX in bladder cancer: a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic molecular marker. Cancer, 115(7):1448-58, 2009.
Summary: CAIX was expressed differentially in noninvasive versus invasive tumors, in low-grade versus high-grade bladder cancer, and in primary tumors versus metastases. The current results indicated that CAIX is a strong predictor of recurrence, progression, and overall survival of patients with bladder cancer; and the integration of CAIX expression into conventional prognostic models significantly improved their predictive accuracy. The data suggest a tripartite role of CAIX as a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic molecular marker in bladder cancer.
Adjuvant Sunitinib in High-Risk Renal-Cell Carcinoma after Nephrectomy. N Engl J Med,375(23):2246-2254, 2016.
Summary: : Among patients with locoregional clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma at high risk for tumor recurrence after nephrectomy, the median duration of disease-free survival was significantly longer in the sunitinib group than in the placebo group, at a cost of a higher rate of toxic events.
An up-to-date evaluation of darolutamide for the treatment of prostate cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 22(4):397-402, 2021.
Summary: The unique structure of darolutamide is characterized by a high affinity for androgen receptors and detainment of antagonist activity in mutant isoforms of androgen receptors. In clinical practice, this is the main reason that makes darolutamide exceptional in terms of safety and efficacy compared to other drugs in this category. Darolutamide is considered to have the lowest probability for adverse events (AEs) compared to apalutamide and enzalutamide. Future studies, along with real-world clinical data are warranted to improve personalized treatment strategies as well as sequencing treatment between approved novel drugs.
Risk for Venous Thromboembolic Events in Patients With Advanced Urinary Tract Cancer Treated With First-Line Chemotherapy. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 18(4):e457-e472, 2020.
Summary: Development of tumor-specific algorithms for the risk of VTEs is advisable. Patients with aUTC and a history of vascular events are at high risk for VTE development, and prophylaxis should be prospectively studied in this group.
Perspectives on the current and emerging chemical androgen receptor antagonists for the treatment of prostate cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 20(2):163-172, 2019.
Summary: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Regardless of the initial treatment of localized disease, almost all patients develop castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind castration resistance has led to the approval of novel oral androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, such as enzalutamide and apalutamide. Indeed, research has accelerated with numerous agents being studied for the management of CRPC. Areas covered: Herein, the authors present currently used and emerging AR antagonists for the treatment of CRPC. Emerging agents include darolutamide, EZN-4176, AZD-3514, and AZD-5312, apatorsen, galeterone, ODM-2014, TRC-253, BMS-641988, and proxalutamide. Expert opinion: Further understanding of the mechanisms leading to castration resistance in prostate cancer can reveal potential targets for the development of novel AR antagonists. Current novel agents are associated with modest clinical and survival benefit, while acquired resistance and safety issues are under continuous evaluation. The combination of AR antagonists used and ideal sequencing strategies are key tasks ahead, along with the investigation of molecular biomarkers for future personalized targeted therapies. In the future, the challenge will be to determine an AR antagonist with the best combination of outcome and tolerability.
Expression and prognostic significance of VEGF and mTOR pathway proteins in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients: a prognostic immunohistochemical profile for kidney cancer patients. World J Urol 35(3):411-419, 2017.
Summary: The aim of the study was to identify prognostic molecular profiles in patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib, we performed immunohistochemical analysis for VEGF and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components. Immunohistochemistry for VEGF and p-mTOR proteins may discriminate patients refractory to first-line sunitinib with poor prognosis.
Phase I and II therapies targeting the androgen receptor for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 25(6):697-707, 2016.
Summary: Further understanding of the mechanisms leading to castration resistance in prostate cancer can reveal potential targets for the development of novel anti-cancer agents. Except for the development of novel antiandrogens and CYP-17 modulators, bipolar androgen therapy is an interesting therapeutic approach. The combinations of the novel agents tested in Phase I and II studies with established agents is another field of interest. The real challenge is to distinguish a novel anti-cancer agent with acceptable tolerability and the best outcome.
Avelumab Maintenance Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma. N Engl J Med 383(13):1218-1230, 2020.
Summary: Maintenance avelumab plus best supportive care significantly prolonged overall survival, as compared with best supportive care alone, among patients with urothelial cancer who had disease that had not progressed with first-line chemotherapy.
Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Nonmetastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of Bladder Is Associated With Pathologic Complete Response and Overall Survival. Clin Genitourin Cancer 18(6):500-508, 2020.
Summary: In patients with nonmetastatic UC of bladder, higher WB M-MDSC and UnC-MDSC before cystectomy had negative prognostic value. Prospective validation is warranted.
Histological Subtypes and Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade in Advanced Urothelial Cancer: A Retrospective Study. J Urol 204(1):63-70, 2020.
Summary: Overall response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors was comparable across histological types. However, overall survival was worse for patients with tumors containing neuroendocrine features. Variant urothelial carcinoma should not exclude patients from receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Circulating Tumor DNA Alterations in Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma and Association with Clinical Outcomes: A Pilot Study. Eur Urol Oncol. 3(5):695-699, 2020.
Summary: Noninvasive testing of cell-free circulating DNA in advanced urothelial carcinoma identifies clinically relevant molecular aberrations. Alterations in BRCA1 and RAF1 genes appear to be negatively associated with clinical outcomes, supporting further study of DNA damage response and RAF kinase inhibitors in selected patients.
Transcriptomic and Protein Analysis of Small-cell Bladder Cancer (SCBC) Identifies Prognostic Biomarkers and DLL3 as a Relevant Therapeutic Target. Clin Cancer Res. 25(1):210-221, 2019.
Summary: Gene expression patterns in SCBC are associated with distinct clinical phenotypes ranging from more indolent to aggressive disease. Overexpression of DLL3 mRNA and protein is common in SCBC and correlates with shorter OS. A DLL3-targeted ADC demonstrated in vivo efficacy superior to chemotherapy in a PDX model of SCBC.
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